来自尼泊尔人民战争的报导 第21部分:踏上中部地区的土地

电讯:来自尼泊尔人民战争的报导
第21部分:踏上中部地区的土地
作者:李 奥内斯托 by Li Onesto
革命工人 1041期 ,2000年2月6日
本篇是那次激动人心的旅行发回的第二十一篇系列报导。

尼泊尔中部地区位于加德满都峡谷(这儿由以首都为中心的政府统治着)和西部地区(这儿人民战争势力十分强大)之间。这儿最大的城市是博卡拉(Pokhara),许多旅游者都来到这里观赏闻名的Anna Purna山脉并从这里开始远足旅行。这一地区还包括了广大的Terai地区。这块狭长的的平原地带沿着南部边境与印度相邻,它包括了另一个大旅游景区,闻名的Chitwan国家公园。
同志们告诉我,在中部地区,拥有大量土地的地主更多。在山区,大多数农民还拥有一小块田地,但也有一些无地的给地主做工的——逐月或逐年得到用货币或庄稼给予的报酬。在Terai,农民做工主要是获得日工资(daily wages)。Terai的土壤十分肥沃,水资源充分,能够种植各种各样的庄稼。
但大约20%的人们没有土地,其它人仅有非常小的一片土地。
直至1960年代,政府和地主开始开垦这块土地的时候,Terai地区还覆盖着大片森林——因而这儿的土地被农民占有并耕作的历史还不长。
人民战争从地主手中夺取土地,还解放了一些包身工——被“卖给”地主或被迫工作还清债务以获取自由的农民。
我听说过一个故事,一个人干了50年包身工。他仅9岁的时候被从家中偷走,以21公斤粟的价格卖给了地主。党带领近1000人来到这个地主家里,召开了群众大会。群众革命组织揭发地主这种剥削行为,并号召人民采取大规模的行动。
人们要求地主要么支付这人50年的劳动报酬,要么象对待儿子那样给他财产。地主接受了第二个条件,被迫交出0.8公顷土地和约400000卢比。
和我采访过的东部和西部相比,中部地区看去很不是那么偏远——离城市和主要公路更近,旅游的人更多——也更易受到警察动员和行动的攻击。这儿和印度的交流(interaction)及受到来自印度(它正横越南部边境)的影响也很多。这儿的一些游击区离小城区更近,和城市里的革命工作有更密切的联系。

Terai 平 原 的 班

我采访了Terai的一个小城市,那儿同志们安排我和四个人民军队班的代表会谈——主要是班长。这些游击战士们冒险从农村来到这座城市里,我们也小心翼翼地旅行来到会见地点。
这些同志们领导的班的活动和西部一个重要地区(它正在发展为根据地)很接近。因此,同志们告诉我,他们班负担着很重要的责任来支持这些西部地区。除了在中部地区采取行动,他们还做支持工作,如向西部地区提供通迅员、武器并派遣专职人员。
和尼泊尔其它地方不同,Terai的气候很是湿热,蚊子很多。我们挤在一间小储藏室里,坐在地板上,膝对着膝。一台风扇给我们送来解凉的微风。但由于噪音,我们只能间或把它打开一次。
一个班长以讲述他班最初采取的行动开始了谈话:
“有几个班自人民战争发动后一直在工作,其它班于一年前在乡下建立。我们开始集中于宣传工作,墙画,海报和游行。我们有其它的目标,象夺取武器。但开始,我们不能做这个。一年后,我们能够夺取武器了。现在,最近3年来,我们班夺取武器行动比其它行动都多。
“有个人不给他的劳力付工钱,还提供高息贷款。人民战争发动后,他从印度买来一支12孔步枪(12-bore rifle),用这个威胁人民。他还对许多妇女性骚扰,所以我们决定对他采取行动。我们班12人,夜晚9点,我们来到他在的地方——森林里。我们分为四队——攻击队、擒拿队、预备队和保卫队。
我们发起忽然袭击。他正睡觉,带着他的枪和60多名工人在那地方。我们攻击时,他的手负伤了,我们夺了他的武器。工人们试图向我班发起攻击,而我们告诉他们,我们是毛主义游击队,我们讲解了他们的老板压榨人民的种种手段。我们对工人们说,‘我们为你们而战,而不是那些暴徒。’他们都静了下来。”
这位班长接着向我讲述了一些他们采取的夺取土地的行动:
“我们采取的另一个行动是夺取土地。我们夺取了超过3公顷的土地,那儿政府种上了树。我们拔去树木清掉边界,把这块土地分给了无地的人们——他们现在依此为生。我们还从一些地主手里夺取粮食分给人民。接着党决定把这个印度卖办和大地主作为目标。他是尼泊尔和印度的公民,有很多仆人在他地里干活。我们说服许多在这人手下干活的穷苦农民去进攻他。
“于是在夜里,在晚上10点钟,7名战士和近100个农民包围了他家。他正在2楼睡觉。我们喊道:“我们是护林员。”他醒来,出来靠着栏杆,但并不下来。然后我们给出了真实的来历,说道,“我们是和农民一起的毛主义游击队。”我们做了一个揭发他罪行的讲话,四名战士去夺取他收获的庄稼。我们打破了他仓库的墙壁,所有农民都冲了进去,喊着口号。
“我们分了粮食——人们能带多少就带多少。但即使这些也是他所有财富的一小部分。我们的行动口号是:“农民运动万岁,新民主主义革命万岁, 人民战争汹涌向前,农民组织万岁,粉碎地主所有制。”后来我们返回粮仓,带走一些高质量的稻谷。接着警察来到人们家里查找这些稻谷,但一家藏这个的也没查到。开始他们谁也没抓,只是恐吓人们。但紧接着,24小时内,群众中有6人被抓。
“我们班12人采取的另一个破坏行动是用炸弹炸了一个地主的房子。当战士行动结束返回时,约150人包围了他们。人们以为我们是强盗。所以我们发表讲话向群众讲了我们的真实行为。但群众中有7人在给地主做保安,他们煽动群众“联合起来反对外来人”保卫“我们的地盘”。他们说,“毛主义者来自山里,假如他们来到这儿,就会取代我们。”这是在Terai地区,平原地带,印度边境,暴徒们突出 Terai这些地方的不同——他们是印度裔和其它少数民族。战士们努力控制形势,告诉他们真相——所有人都应当支持人民战争——但我们的声音几乎不能被听到,因为所有人都在吼。战士们不能成功,决定撤离。”
当我班撤退时,群众愤怒地跟着我们,游击战士们不得不引爆一枚手榴弹以脱身。
“党没有预料到群众会做出如此的反应,所以只派遣一个小班采取了这次行动。这是我班的第一次经历。此后,我们尽量熟悉形势,这样我们就能矫正群众中错误的东西。经过几次讨论,我们为发生的事情分析出两个原因(矛盾):一、缺乏对群众政治情况的了解。二、山区人民和Terai人民之间存在着误解。山区人民和Terai人民存在着地区和文化上的差异。所以我们来到事发地点人们的家中和他们交谈。我们发现,实际上,人们并不反对毛主义运动。他们告诉我们,他们做出那样的反应是因为他们害怕遭到保安们和地主的报复。
“然而,这地方大数人们在支持人民战争方面摇摆不定,这取决于人民战争的强弱。于是党来到人民中,更加努力地做着建立革命群众组织的工作。
“到目前为止,我们向三个地方发出警告,逼迫他们把土地返还给农民。地主们有治安卫兵、武器等等,非常强大,进攻他们比袭击警所还难。这一地区许多农民没有土地,不得不在地主的田里干活。一些人甚至不得不把家庭成员卖给地主。那些在地主地里干活的人仅得到能够维持生存的最低限度的粮食和衣服,其它人得到一些粮食。所以现在那些人希望成为自由劳动者,能从地主那里得到工钱。
“在这个中部地区,党内只有2%的专职人员是Terai人。但党给予了被压迫民族自决的权利和自治区的保证。在这个纲领之下,Terai地区的Tharu族人建立了革命组织,`Tharu ban mukti Morcha'(Tharu解放阵线)。”
屋里有一位战士是Tharu族人,他给我讲了他是怎样参加人民军队的:
“我来自无地的人家,通过了解人民斗争的历史,我开始知道了革命共产党。人民反对村务委员会制度的活动使我受到鼓舞。当我参加了Tharu解放阵线后,我开始懂得地主和无地农民之间的区别,只有通过阶级斗争地主和农民之间的问题才能解决。那一时期,我在给一个地主干活并且参加了解放运动。我们要求土地和更高的工钱,因此和地主的关系很紧张。就这样我入了党参加了党的活动,从党那儿学得知识。现在我为成为一名共产主义者感到自豪,我决定长期和党在一起,直至胜利。”

山 区 的 班

接下来谈话的班长讲了Terai地区以外的班的工作。
“在山区,高利贷商人是比大地主更主要的问题,我们采取了夺取债券(土地证和债务)的行动。NGOs(非政府帮助组织,non-governmental aid organizations)和农民之间也有矛盾。班里的大多数工作都是针对着解决这两个矛盾的。一次由十七名游击战士采取的行动目标针对着欧洲经济协会(一个国际性的NGO)和政府乡村发展委员会(VDC)的所在地。”
领导这次行动的指挥坐在我对面,他接过关于这次行动的话题接着讲道:
“部队由17名成员组成。目标是帝国主义的代理机构。选中目标后,战士们做了军事预备——得到武器,估量目的地的形势,比如何时来何时返,等等。那时EEC(欧洲经济协会)正在举行为期一周的练习,侦察组对此事做了报告,我们决定在练习的最后一天发起进攻,侦察组估计那时,仅有四人在大楼里。
“我班在一个地点集合,指挥向全班做了简短的谈话,然后每个战士也讲了他们自己对目标和行动的感受。我们把班分为袭击、夺取、保卫和后备队。还有一个巡逻队注重警察的动静。
“然而,当我们到达那儿时,情况并不象侦察班报告的那样。在练习的最后一天,参加者留下来等报酬,所以两座建筑物里的人更多——VDC房里16人,EEC楼上两人。一名战士回来报告说形势不利,所以全班驻留在大楼的四周等待着。正当所有人都在绞尽脑汁合计该怎么办时,我决定我们应当奋勇向前,拿下那两座建筑物。”
“我们包围了 VDC的大楼,一位女战士把守着大门。我们向楼里的人们简要地讲了来历,说:“我们是毛主义者,你们组织是我们的打击目标。”我们警告他们不要耍花招向外闯。与此同时我们包围了EEC大楼,我向房里的人做了简要的讲话,说我们不拿你们个人的物品,仅拿取EEC的财产和资金。一个EEC官员害怕了,向我们提供了EEC财产地点的全部信息。于是夺取队就能够夺取这个情报所提供的全部物资。夺取了EEC的财产和大楼后,我们回到VDC房前。
“这个VDC里有许多支持毛主义者的人。但这个VDC 的主席是修正主义UML(尼泊尔共产党,联合马列主义)的一个成员。党曾以VDC的名义给他写信要求他给尼共(毛泽东主义)20000卢比的捐款——但他拒绝出。这个 VDC里的一个官方书记也曾做过警察的侦察。
“战士们打坏门,冲进VDC房内,向他们解释为什么要把VDC所在地作为打击目标。我们要求40000卢比,由于迟误,我们的要求比原始数字更高。我们命令那个侦察今后停止为警方卖力。我们花了一个小时才结束这次行动。外面聚集了约100人的四周居民,我们向他们发表了讲话。之后,我们朝天鸣枪,高呼口号,如“发展游击战争”、“驱逐帝国主义”和“马列毛主义万岁”。然后,我们就分散了。我们在一个安全的地点集合,对我们夺取的物质作了估价,总结了班和每个人的工作,然后就解散了。”
这群游击队员里面有一位女同志,她实在是急切地要发言。她一开始讲话,我就能感觉到她的雄辩和激情,虽然我听不懂她的话。她的姿势和布满了坚强与忠诚的面部表情。翻译看上去几乎被她的话惊呆了,一时忘记了自己的工作。因此我不得不用肘轻轻推他要他告诉我她讲了些什么:
“我19岁,还没结婚,上学读到8年级。我成为党的专职人员已经两年了。我母亲和父亲在群众革命组织里。我是演唱革命歌曲的歌舞演员,但开始我并不真正地懂得它们。当一支文化班来到我们村时,我向她们学习。人民战争发动后,暴徒们迫使四个人转入地下,留在村里是危险的,所以我有点害怕。但我开始为党做通讯员。当警察企图抓我时,我离家转入地下。然后我学习了党的革命政治纲领。
“我知道一点俄国和秘鲁革命的情况。我知道那儿的妇女肩上杠着枪参加了革命。一段时间之后,我成了一个班的战士,象其它妇女一样拿起了枪。
“我第一次经历了惩罚坏分子的活动。他是一个高利贷主,强暴了他姨妈,看到那么多妇女参加了对他的惩罚,我兴奋极了。我拿着枪站在河岸上放哨。
“这是我第一次武装起来,所以我感到责任更重了。那时,我想起了燕妮 马克思(卡尔 马克思的夫人)。当我们抓住这个高利贷主的时候,四周居民赶来观看,班长作了讲话,揭发了这个惩治对象的罪行,所有的群众都支持我班。我全副武装,村里的妇女看到这样一个女子都感到吃惊。班长告诉妇女们,这个坏分子强暴了他姨妈,因此妇女们该打他。于是我就踢了这个坏分子一脚,他嘴里流出血来。这是我第一次感觉到惩罚阶级敌人是多么愉快。所有的妇女都警告他,对他讲,假如他再强暴其它人,她们决不会放过他。
“现在,我和班里的战士们在一起,我感到有责任同反动派战斗,解放妇女和所有的人民群众。我更感到有责任推翻反动统治,建立一个崭新的尼泊尔。我看到那么多的妇女被人民战争深深地吸引了,我打算招募更多的妇女同志参加人民军队。”

Dispatches: Report from the People's War in Nepal
电讯:来自尼泊尔人民战争的报导
Part 21: Land in the Middle
第21篇:踏上中部地区的土地作者:李 奥内斯托 by Li OnestoRevolutionary Worker #1041, February 6, 2000
革命工人 1041期 ,2000年2月6日
本篇是那次激动人心的旅行发回的第二十一篇系列报导。
This is the twenty-first article of a new series of dispatches from this exciting trip. (See RW #1014-#1020, #1022-1024, #1027-1029 and #1032-1038 for Parts 1 through 20.)
The Middle Region of Nepal lies in between the Kathmandu Valley--where the government rules from the capital--and the Western Region, where the People's War is the strongest. The biggest city here is Pokhara, where lots of tourists go to view the famous Anna Purna range and start out on treks. This region also contains the large Terai area. This narrow strip of plains land along the southern border next to India includes another big tourist area, the famous Chitwan National Park.
尼泊尔中部地区位于加德满都峡谷(这儿由以首都为中心的政府统治着)和西部地区(这儿人民战争势力十分强大)之间。这儿最大的城市是博卡拉(Pokhara),许多旅游者都来到这里观赏闻名的Anna Purna山脉并从这里开始远足旅行。这一地区还包括了广大的Terai地区。这块狭长的的平原地带沿着南部边境与印度相邻,它包括了另一个大旅游景区,闻名的Chitwan国家公园。
The comrades tell me that in the Middle Region, there are more landlords who own a lot of land. In the hill areas, most of the peasants still own small plots of land, but there are also some who are landless and work for landlords--getting paid monthly or yearly in money or crops. And, in the Terai, the peasants mainly work for daily wages. The soil in the Terai is highly fertile, and there are abundant water sources, which permit the cultivation of a wide variety of crops.
同志们告诉我,在中部地区,拥有大量土地的地主更多。在山区,大多数农民还拥有一小块田地,但也有一些无地的给地主做工的——逐月或逐年得到用货币或庄稼给予的报酬。在Terai,农民做工主要是获得日工资(daily wages)。Terai的土壤十分肥沃,水资源充分,能够种植各种各样的庄稼。But about 20% of the people are landless, and others have only very small amounts of land.
但大约20%的人们没有土地,其它人仅有非常小的一片土地。The Terai was heavily forested until the 1960s, when the government and landlords began to clear the land--so the land here does not have a long history of being owned and cultivated by the peasants.
Terai地区覆盖着大片森林,直至1960年代,政府和地主开始开垦这块土地的时候。——因而这儿的土地被农民拥有耕作的历史还不长。The People's War has seized land from landlords and also liberated some bonded laborers--peasants who have been "sold" to a landlord or forced to work for "free" in order to pay back a debt.
人民战争从地主手中夺取土地,还解放了一些包身工——被“卖给”地主或被迫工作还清债务以获取自由的农民。
I heard one story where a man had been working as a bonded laborer for 50 years. He had been stolen from his family when he was only 9 years old and was sold to the landlord for 20 kilograms of millet. The party led nearly 1,000 people to go to the landlord and hold a mass meeting. The mass revolutionary organizations exposed the kind of exploitation done by this landlord and called on the people to take mass action.
我听说过一个故事,一个人干了50年包身工。他仅9岁的时候被从家中偷走,以21公斤粟的价格卖给了地主。党带领近1000人来到这个地主家里,召开了群众大会。群众革命组织揭发地主这种剥削行为,并号召人民采取大规模的行动。
The people demanded that the landlord either pay the man for 50 years of labor or give him property as if he were his son. The landlord accepted the second proposal and was forced to give up 0.8 hectares of land and about 400,000 rupees.
人们要求地主要么支付这人50年的劳动报酬,要么象对待儿子那样给他财产。地主接受了第二个条件,被迫交出0.8公顷土地和约400000卢比。
Compared to the areas I visited in the East and West, the Middle Region seems a lot less remote--closer to cities and major highways, more invaded by tourism--and more vulnerable to the movements and mobilizations of the police. And there is a lot of interaction with and influence from India--which is right across the southern border. Some of the guerrilla zones here are closer to small urban areas and more linked up with the revolutionary work being done in the cities.
和我采访过的东部和西部相比,中部地区看上去很不是那么偏远——离城市和主要公路更近,旅游的人更多——也更易受到警察动员和行动的攻击。这儿和印度的交流(interaction)及受到来自印度(它正横越南部边境)的影响也很多。这儿的一些游击区离小城区更近,和城市里的革命工作有更密切的联系。
Terai Squads
Terai平原的班
I visited a small city in the Terai where comrades arranged for me to meet with representatives from four people's army squads--mainly squad commanders. These guerrillas have taken the risk of coming into the city from the countryside, and we have to travel carefully to the meeting place.
我采访了Terai的一个小城市,那儿同志们安排我和四个人民军队班的代表会谈——主要是班长。这些游击战士们冒险从农村来到这座城市里,我们也小心翼翼地旅行来到会见地点。

The squads these comrades lead operate near an important area in the West that is moving towards becoming a base area. And so, the comrades tell me, their squads have an important duty to support these western areas. In addition to carrying out actions in the Middle Region, they also do support work, like providing couriers and arms and sending full-timers to the West.
这些同志们领导的班的活动和西部一个重要地区(它正在发展为根据地)很接近。因此,同志们告诉我,他们班负担着很重要的责任来支持这些西部地区。除了在中部地区采取行动,他们还做支持工作,如向西部地区提供通迅员、武器并派遣专职人员。
Unlike the rest of Nepal, the climate in the Terai is very hot and humid, with lots of mosquitoes. We are packed into a small storeroom, sitting on the floor, knee-to- knee. There is one fan that provides a small breeze of relief. But we can only turn it on for brief spurts because of the noise.
和尼泊尔其它地方不同,Terai的气候很是湿热,蚊子很多。我们挤在一间小储藏室里,坐在地板上,膝对着膝。一台风扇给我们送来解凉的微风。但由于噪音,我们只能间或把它打开一次。
One squad commander starts out by recounting some of the first actions taken by his squad:
一个班长以讲述他班最初采取的行动开始了谈话:
"Several squads have been working since the initiation and one other was established in the countryside one year ago. We concentrated initially on propaganda work, wall paintings, postering and processions. We had other goals like seizing arms. But in the beginning, we weren't able to do this. After one year, we were able to do a seizure of arms. And now, during the last three years, our squads have done more armed seizures than other actions.
“有几个班自人民战争发动后在工作,其它班于一年前在乡下建立。我们开始集中于宣传工作,墙画,海报和游行。我们有其它的目标,象夺取武器。但开始,我们不能做这个。一年后,我们能够夺取武器了。现在,最近3年来,我们班夺取武器行动比其它行动都多。
"There was one man who didn't pay wages to his laborers and took high interest on loans. When the initiation happened he bought a 12-bore rifle from India and threatened people with it. He also sexually harassed many women, and so we decided to take action against him. There were 12 in our squad, and at 9:00 p.m., we went to where he was, in the forest. We divided into four groups--assault group, seize group, reserve group and defense group.
“有个人不给他的劳力付工钱,还提供高息贷款。人民战争发动后,他从印度买来一支12孔步枪(12-bore rifle)用这个威胁人民。他还对许多妇女性骚扰,所以我们决定对他采取行动。我们班12人,夜晚9点,我们来到他在的地方——森林里。我们分为四队——攻击队、擒拿队、预备队和保卫队。

We did a surprise attack. He was sleeping with his gun and more than 60 workers of his were in the area. When we attacked he got a broken hand, and we were able to seize his weapon. The workers tried to attack the squad, but we told them, we are Maoist guerrillas, and we explained all the ways their boss was exploiting the people. We said to the workers, `We are fighting for you, not the goons,' and all of them became silent."
我们发起忽然袭击。他正睡觉,带着他的枪和60多名工人在那地方。我们攻击时,他的手负伤了,我们夺了他的武器。工人们试图向我班发起攻击,而我们告诉他们,我们是毛主义游击队,我们讲解了他们的老板压榨人民的种种手段。我们对工人们说,‘我们为你们而战,而不是那些暴徒。’他们都静了下来。”
The squad commander moves on to tell me about some of the actions they have taken to get land:
这位班长接着向我讲述了一些他们采取的夺取土地的行动:
"Another action we did was a land seizure. We seized more than three hectares where the government had planted trees. We took out the trees and the boundary and distributed the land to the landless--who now live on it. We also seized crops from some landlords and distributed this among the people. Then the party decided to target this Indian comprador and landowner. He is a citizen of Nepal and India and had a number of servants working on his land. We convinced a lot of the poor peasants who worked under this man to attack him.
“我们采取的另一个行动是夺取土地。我们夺取了超过3公顷的土地,那儿政府种上了树。我们拔去树木清掉边界,把这块土地分给了无地的人们——他们现在依此为生。我们还从一些地主手里夺取粮食分给人民。接着党决定把这个印度卖办和大地主作为目标。他是尼泊尔和印度的公民,有很多仆人在他地里干活。我们说服许多在这人手下干活的穷苦农民去进攻他。
"So at night, at 10:00 p.m., seven squad members encircled his house together with nearly 100 peasants. He was sleeping on the second floor and we called out, `We are the forest rangers.' He woke up and came outside on the railing but didn't come downstairs. Then we gave a real introduction, saying, `We are Maoist guerrillas with the peasants.' We gave a speech exposing his bad role and four squad members went to seize his harvested crops. We broke down the wall of his storehouse and all the peasants went inside, shouting slogans.
“于是在夜里,在晚上10点钟,7名战士和近100个农民包围了他家。他正在2楼睡觉。我们喊道:“我们是护林员。”他醒来,出来靠着栏杆,但并不下来。然后我们给出了真实的来历,说道,“我们是和农民一起的毛主义游击队。”我们做了一个揭发他罪行的讲话,四名战士去拿取他收获的庄稼。我们打破了他仓库的墙壁,所有农民都冲了进去,喊着口号。
"We distributed the crops--people took as much as they could carry, but even this was only part of all his wealth. The slogans we did this under were: `Long Live the Peasants' Movement, Long Live New Democratic Revolution, People's War is Continuous, Long Live Peasant Organizations, and Smash Landlord Ownership.' We came back to the house later and took some high quality rice. Then the police came around to people's houses to look for this rice, but they couldn't find anyone with it. At first they didn't arrest anyone, they just terrorized people. But then, within 24 hours, six people from among the masses were arrested.
“我们分了粮食——人们能带多少就带多少。但即使这些也是他所有财富的一小部分。我们的行动口号是:“农民运动万岁,新民主主义革命万岁, 人民战争汹涌向前,农民组织万岁,粉碎地主所有制。”后来我们返回粮仓,带走一些高质量的稻谷。接着警察来到人们家里查找这些稻谷,但一家藏这个的也没找到。开始他们谁也没抓,只是恐吓人们。但紧接着,24小时内,群众中有6人被抓。
"We carried out another sabotage with a 12-member squad in which the house of a landlord was blasted with a bomb. When the squad was returning from this action, about 150 people surrounded them. The people thought we were robbers. So we gave a speech telling the masses what we were really doing. But there were seven people in the crowd who were working for the landlord as a security force, and they called on the people to `unite against the outsiders' to defend `our place.' They said, `The Maoists are from the hillside. And if they come here they will displace us.' This was in the Terai area, the plain lands, on the border of India, and the goons raised the differences between those in the Terai, who are originally from India, and other nationalities. The squad tried to control the situation by telling the truth--that everyone should support the People's War--but we could not even be heard because everyone was shouting. The squad was not successful and decided to leave."
“我们班12人采取的另一个破坏行动是用炸弹炸了一个地主的房子。当战士行动结束返回时,约150人包围了他们。人们以为我们是强盗。所以我们发表讲话向群众讲了我们的真实行为。但群众中有7人在给地主做保安,他们煽动群众“联合起来反对外来人”保卫“我们的地盘”。他们说,“毛主义者来自山里,假如他们来到这儿,就会取代我们。”这是在Terai地区,平原地带,印度边境,暴徒们突出 Terai这些地方的不同——他们是印度裔和其它少数民族。战士们努力控制形势,告诉他们真相——所有人都应当支持人民战争——但我们的声音几乎不能被听到,因为所有人都在吼。战士们不能成功,决定撤离。”


As the squad retreated, the crowd angrily followed them, and the guerrillas had to set off a grenade to make their escape.
当我班撤退时,群众愤怒地跟着我们,游击战士们不得不引爆一枚手榴弹以逃脱。

"The party had not anticipated that the people would respond like this and so only a small squad had been sent to carry out this action. And this was the squad's first experience. Afterwards, we tried to understand this situation, so we could rectify things with the masses. And after some discussion, we came up with two causes/contradictions for what happened. One, was the lack of understanding of the political situation among the masses. And secondly, there is the misunderstanding between hillside and Terai people. There are cultural and language differences between hillside and Terai people. So we went to people's houses where the incident took place and talked with them. And we found out that in fact, the people were not against the Maoist movement. They told us that they reacted the way they did because they were afraid of repercussions from the security forces and the landlord.
“党没有预料到群众会做出如此的反应,所以只派遣一个小班采取了这次行动。这是我班的第一次经历。此后,我们尽量熟悉形势,这样我们就能矫正群众中错误的东西。经过几次讨论,我们为发生的事情分析出两个原因/矛盾:一、缺乏对群众政治情况的了解。二、山区人民和Terai人民之间存在着误解。山区人民和Terai人民存在着地区和文化上的差异。所以我们来到事发地人们的家中和他们交谈。我们发现,实际上,人们并不反对毛主义运动。他们告诉我们,他们做出那样的反应是因为他们害怕遭到保安们和地主的报复。
"Still, most of the people in this area are wavering in their support, depending on how strong the People's War is. So the party went among the people and worked even harder to build revolutionary mass organizations.
“然而,这地方大数人们在支持人民战争方面摇摆不定,这取决于人民战争的强弱。于是党来到人民中,更加努力地做着建立革命群众组织的工作。
"So far, we have threatened three landlords and forced them to return land to the peasants. Landlords have security guards, weapons, etc. and are very strong, and it's more difficult to attack them than to raid police stations. In this area many of the peasants are landless and have to work on the landlords' land. Some have even had to sell family members to the landlord. Those who work on the landlords' land get just minimal food and clothes to live, others get some crops. So now the people want to work as free laborers and get wages from the landlord.
“到目前为止,我们向三个地方发出警告,逼迫他们把土地返还给农民。地主们有治安卫兵、武器等等,非常强大,进攻他们比袭击警所还难。这一地区许多农民没有土地,不得不在地主的田里干活。一些人甚至不得不把家庭成员卖给地主。那些在地主地里干活的人仅得到能够维持生存的最低限度的粮食和衣服,其它人得到一些粮食。所以现在那些人希望成为自由劳动者,能从地主那里得到工钱。
"In this mid-region, only 2% of full-timers in the party are people from the Terai. But the party has announced the right to self-determination and the guarantee of autonomous regions for the oppressed nationalities. With this program, the Tharu nationality people in the Terai are being organized into the revolutionary organization, `Tharu ban mukti Morcha' (Tharu Liberation Front)."
“在这个中部地区,党内只有2%的专职人员是Terai人。但党给予了被压迫民族自决的权利和自治区的保证。在这个纲领之下,Terai地区的Tharu族人建立了革命组织,`Tharu ban mukti Morcha'(Tharu解放阵线)。”
One of the squad members in the room is a Tharu and he tells how he came to join the people's army:
屋里有一位战士是Tharu族人,他给我讲了他是怎样参加人民军队的:
"I am from landless people and by knowing the history of the people's struggle I came to know the revolutionary communist party. I got inspired around the people's movement against the Panchayat system. When I joined the Tharu Liberation Front, I came to know of the division between the land owners and landless and that the problem of landlords and peasants can only be resolved through class struggle. During this time I was working for a landlord and participated in the liberation movement. We demanded land and more wages so the relationship with the landlords was tense. In this way I joined the party and participated in actions and got knowledge from the party. Now I feel proud to be a communist, and I am determined to be with the party for a long time, until victory."
“我来自无地的人家,通过了解人民斗争的历史,我开始知道了革命共产党。人民反对村务委员会制度的活动使我受到鼓舞。当我参加了Tharu解放阵线后,我开始懂得地主和无地农民之间的区别,只有通过阶级斗争地主和农民之间的问题才能解决。那一时期,我在给一个地主干活并且参加了解放运动。我们要求土地和更高的工钱,因此和地主的关系很紧张。就这样我入了党参加了党的活动,从党那儿学得知识。现在我为成为一名共产主义者感到自豪,我决定长期和党在一起,直至胜利。”
Hill Squad
山区的班
The squad commander talks next about the work of the squad outside of the Terai:
接下来谈话的班长讲了Terai地区以外的班的工作。
"In the hill areas, usurers are more the main problem than big landlords, and we have done actions there to capture bond (land ownership and debt) papers. There are also contradictions between NGOs (non-governmental aid organizations) and peasants. Most of the work of the squads is aimed at dealing with these two contradictions. One action, carried out by 17 guerrillas, was aimed at the European Economic Community, an international NGO, and the house of the government Village Development Committee (VDC)."
“在山区,高利贷商人是比大地主更主要的问题,我们采取了夺取债券(土地证和债务)的行动。NGOs(非政府帮助组织,non-governmental aid organizations)和农民之间也有矛盾。班里的大多数工作都是针对着解决这两个矛盾的。一次由十七名游击战士采取的行动目标针对着欧洲经济协会(一个国际性的NGO)和政府乡村发展委员会(VDC)的所在地。”
The commander who led this action is sitting across from me and picks up the narration of this action:
领导这次行动的指挥坐在我对面,他接过关于这次行动的话题接着讲道:
"There were 17 members in the troop. The target was this imperialist agent. After picking the target the squad made military preparations--getting arms, and surveying the situation of the target, like when they come and go, etc. The EEC was conducting a week-long training session at the time so the survey team reported back and we decided to attack on the last day of training, when the survey team estimated there would only be four people in the building.
“部队由17名成员组成。目标是帝国主义的代理机构。选中目标后,战士们做了军事预备——得到武器,估量目的地的形势,比如何时来何时返,等等。那时EEC(欧洲经济协会)正在举行为期一周的练习,侦察组对此事做了报告,我们决定在练习的最后一天发起进攻,侦察组估计那时,仅有四人在大楼里。
"The squad gathered in one place and the commander gave a brief talk to the squad and then each member also spoke about their own feelings about the target and action. We divided the group into assault, seizing, defense and reserve groups. There was also a patrolling group to look out for police.
“我班在一个地点集合,指挥向全班做了简短的谈话,然后每个战士也讲了他们自己对目标和行动的感受。我们把班分为袭击、夺取、保卫和后备队。还有一个巡逻队注重警察的动静。
"But then, when we got there, the situation was not like what had been reported in the survey. On the last day of training, the participants were waiting for payment, and so there were more people in the two buildings--16 in one VDC house and two in the EEC building. One of the squad members came back and reported that the situation was not favorable, and so the squad camped near the buildings and waited. At the time everyone was trying to figure out what to do, and I decided we should go ahead and capture the two houses.
“然而,当我们到达那儿时,情况并不象侦察班报告的那样。在练习的最后一天,参加者留下来等报酬,所以两座建筑物里的人更多——VDC房里16人,EEC楼上两人。一名战士回来报告说形势不利,所以全班驻留在大楼的四周等待着。正当所有人都在绞尽脑汁合计该怎么办时,我决定我们应当奋勇向前,拿下那两所房子。
"We surrounded the VDC building and one woman squad member guarded the door. We gave a brief introduction to the people inside, saying, `We are the Maoists and we are targeting your organization.' We told them not to try and come out. At the same time we encircled the EEC building and I gave a brief speech to the people inside, saying we won't take your personal belongings but just the EEC property and cash. One of the EEC officers was afraid and gave us all the information about what EEC property was there. So the seizing group was able to seize all the materials with this information. After taking the EEC property and building we went back to the VDC house.
“我们包围了 VDC的大楼,一位女战士把守着大门。我们向楼里的人们简要地讲了来历,说:“我们是毛主义者,你们组织是我们的打击目标。”我们警告他们不要耍花招向外闯。与此同时我们包围了EEC大楼,我向房里的人做了简要的讲话,说我们不拿你们个人的物品,仅拿取EEC的财产和资金。一个EEC官员害怕了,向我们提供了EEC财产在哪里的全部信息。于是夺取队就能够夺取这个情报所提供的全部物资。夺取了EEC的财产和大楼后,我们回到VDC房前。
"This VDC is one where there is a lot of support for the Maoists. But the VDC chairman was a member of the revisionist UML (Communist Party of Nepal, United Marxist-Leninist). The party had written a letter to him asking that 20,000 rupees be donated to the CPN (Maoist) in the name of the VDC--but he did not pay. An official secretary in this VDC had also been acting as an informer for the police.
“这个VDC里有许多支持毛主义者的人。但这个VDC 的主席是修正主义UML(尼泊尔共产党,联合马列主义)的一个成员。党曾以VDC的名义给他写信要求他给尼共(毛泽东主义)20000卢比的捐款——但他拒绝出。这个 VDC里的一个官方书记也曾做过警察的侦察。
"The squad smashed the door, entered the VDC house and explained why they were targeting this VDC house. We demanded 40,000 rupees, more than the original demand--for being late. And we demanded that the informer stop working for the police. We took one hour to complete this action. Outside, about 100 neighbors had gathered and we gave speeches to them. After this we fired into the air and shouted slogans like, `Advance Guerrilla Warfare,' `Kick Out the Imperialists' and `Long Live MLM.' Then we dispersed. We gathered at a safe point and made an assessment of the materials we had seized and summed up the work of the squad and different individuals and then dispersed."
“战士们打坏门,冲进VDC房内,向他们解释为什么要把VDC所在地作为打击目标。我们要求40000卢比,由于迟误,我们的要求比原始数字更高。我们命令那个侦察今后停止为警方卖力。我们花了一个小时才结束这次行动。外面聚集了约100人的四周居民,我们向他们发表了讲话。之后,我们朝天鸣枪,高呼口号,如“发展游击战争”、“驱逐帝国主义”和“马列毛主义万岁”。然后,我们就分散了。我们在一个安全的地点集合,对我们夺取的物质作了估价,总结了班和每个人的工作,然后就解散了。”
There is one woman in this group of guerrillas and she is really eager to speak. As soon as she starts speaking, I can feel her eloquence and passion, even though I can't understand her words. Her gestures and facial expressions, radiate with toughness and sincerity. My translator seems almost transfixed by what she is saying and momentarily forgets his job. So I have to nudge him to get him to tell me what she's saying:
这群游击队员里面有一位女同志,她实在是急切地要发言。她一开始讲话,我就能感觉到她的雄辩和激情,虽然我听不懂她的话。她的姿势和布满了坚强与忠诚的面部表情。翻译看上去几乎被她的话惊呆了,一时忘记了自己的工作。因此我不得不用肘轻轻推他要他告诉我她讲了些什么:
"I am 19 years old, unmarried, and went to school through eighth grade. I have been a full-timer for two years. My mother and father are in mass revolutionary organizations. I was a dancer and singer who sang revolutionary songs, but at first I didn't really understand them. I learned them when a cultural troop came to our village. After the initiation, goons forced four people to go underground, and it was dangerous in our village, so I was a little afraid. But I started to act as a courier for the party. When the police tried to capture me, I left the house and went underground. Then I learned the revolutionary politics of the party.
“我19岁,未婚,上学读到8年级。我成为党的专职人员已经两年了。我母亲和父亲在群众革命组织里。我是演唱革命歌曲的歌舞演员,但开始我并不真正地懂得它们。当一支文化班来到我们村时,我向她们学习。人民战争发动后,暴徒们迫使四个人转入地下,留在村里是危险的,所以我有点害怕。但我开始为党做通讯员。当警察企图抓我时,我离家转入地下。然后我学习了党的革命政治纲领。
"I knew a little about the revolutions in Russia and Peru. And I knew that women there had participated with guns on their shoulders. After some time I became a squad member and picked up the gun like those women.
“我知道一点俄国和秘鲁革命的情况。我知道那儿的妇女肩上杠着枪参加了革命。一段时间之后,我成了一个班的战士,象其它妇女一样拿起了枪。
"I had my first experience of giving physical torture to a bad element. He was a usurer who raped his own auntie and I was very happy to see a number of women participate in this attack. I stood guard with a rifle on the bank of the river.
“我第一次经历了惩罚坏分子的活动。他是一个高利贷主,强暴了他姨妈,看到那么多妇女参加了对他的惩罚,我兴奋极了。我拿着枪站在河岸上放哨。
"This was the first time I was armed, so I felt more responsibility. And at the time, I thought about Jenny Marx (the wife of Karl Marx). When we caught the usurer, some neighbors came to see the action and the squad commander gave a speech exposing the target and all the masses supported the squad. I was armed and all the village women were surprised to see a woman like this. The commander said to the women, this bad element raped his auntie so the women should hit him. So I kicked the bad element and blood came out of his mouth. This was the first time I felt how good it is to hit the class enemy. All the women threatened him and told him that if he rapes anyone else, they will not leave him alone.
“这是我第一次武装起来,所以我感到责任更重了。那时,我想起了燕妮 马克思(卡尔 马克思的夫人)。当我们抓住这个高利贷主的时候,四周居民赶来观看,班长作了讲话,揭发了这个惩治对象的罪行,所有的群众都支持我班。我全副武装,村里的妇女看到这样一个女子都感到吃惊。班长告诉妇女们,这个坏分子强暴了他姨妈,因此妇女们该打他。于是我就踢了这个坏分子一脚,他嘴里流出血来。这是我第一次感觉到惩罚阶级敌人是多么愉快。所有的妇女都警告他,对他讲,假如他再强暴其它人,她们决不会放过他。
"Now, that I'm with the squad, I feel a responsibility to fight the reactionaries and to liberate women, along with all the masses of people. I feel more responsibility to overthrow the reactionaries and make a new Nepal. I see how many women are attracted to the People's War and I'm going to work to recruit more women into the people's army."
“现在,我和班里的战士们在一起,我感到有责任同反动派战斗,解放妇女和所有的人民群众。我更感到有责任推翻反动统治,建立一个崭新的尼泊尔。我看到那么多的妇女被人民战争所吸引,我打算招募更多的妇女同志参加人民军队。”