翻译素材:菲律宾航空公司工潮与菲律宾工人阶级的斗争

来源:http://www.philippinerevolution.net/
菲共机关报Angbayan 2010年11月21日
The struggle at Philippine Air Lines and the struggle of the Philippine working class
It is just for the workers of Philippine Air Lines (PAL) to struggle to the hilt against plans to terminate almost 3,000 regular workers of the company and replace them with contractual agency workers. The struggle against this outsourcing scheme is widespread and fully supported by the working class and the toiling masses.
It is not only the livelihood of PAL workers and their families that is at stake in this struggle. Big capitalists will grow more emboldened to engage in outsourcing, especially with the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) upholding PAL’s plans.
This struggle is in line with the workers’ struggle against labor “flexibilization” which imperialists have been enforcing since the 1990s. The exploitation of Filipino workers has worsened in the past two decades through various forms of labor “flexibilization” such as casualization and contractualization and through the currently expanding system of outsourcing.
These systems, which have become standard practice are enforced through gross deception, coercion and intimidation. Forcible retirement, among other means, is resorted to in order to boot out regular workers and replace them.

From 15% in the early 1990s, almost 80% of the country’s workers are now casuals and contractuals. Such a practice has become widespread, mainly among big comprador capitalists like PAL owner Lucio Tan. In 1999, Tan got rid of 5,000 out of PAL’s 12,500 workers and replaced them with contractuals from a conspiring agency. If his latest scheme to replace another 3,000 workers succeeds, up to 70% of PAL’s work force will have been oursourced.
Outsourcing is also being enforced in other enterprises owned by Lucio Tan. At the Victorias Milling Corporation, where Lucio Tan is majority owner, practically the entire work force has been outsourced. At Fortune Tobacco, there are plans to boot out 2,400 workers and replace them with contractuals.
There are now more contractuals compared to regular workers in more than 70% of Philippine enterprises. This is the case in some of the biggest companies like San Miguel Corporation (96%), SM Shoemart (94%), Dole Philippines (77%) and PLDT (60%). ABS-CBN was recently in the news when it terminated 100 contractual workers that it employed through its own agency, the ABS-CBN Internal Job Market. Almost 100% of those employed by the much-vaunted call centers (which account for the biggest number of jobs outsourced by foreign companies) are contractual, as well as in fastfood chains like Jollibee.

The widespread employment of contractual workers enables capitalists to intensify exploitation and increase their superprofits. Contractuals receive far lower wages compared to regular workers doing the same jobs. In most cases, the contractuals are given wages that are even lower than the legal minimum. They are deprived of the rights and benefits enjoyed by regular workers.
Capitalists actually have very few obligations, if any, to contractual workers. The practice of requiring contractuals to work more than eight hours a day or during holidays without overtime pay is widespread. So is the no work-no pay policy and the deprivation of medical or other benefits. Many contractual workers are likewise employed without written contracts and can thus be made to perform work heavier than they expected and in many cases, even illegal acts. They can be terminated for the slightest infraction and without being given a chance to defend their side.
The low wages received by contractuals further pull down the value of labor in the Philippines. In the face of widespread unemployment and their desperation to land whatever jobs are available, contractual workers are forced to accept the measly wages and oppressive work conditions attendant to their temporary employment.
Crippling unions or nipping them in the bud are among the main objectives of imperialists and their big comprador capitalist co-conspiratirs in enforcing widespread labor “flexibilization.” Although illegal, most labor contracts contain provisions prohibiting workers from engaging in union activities. Contractual workers’ limited employment periods also prevent them from unionizing.
The contractualization of labor has already dealt a severe blow on the unionization of workers. After almost two decades of labor “flexibilization,” only about 5% of workers are organized into unions (from 15% in 1995). Moreover, only up to 200,000 workers (less than 1% of the labor force) are covered by Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBA).
With labor “flexibilization” widespread and labor unions rendered inutile, Filipino workers are subjected to the gravest forms of exploitation and their rights violated unrelentingly. Many of the victories won by the working class through the struggles it waged in the last century are being trampled on, violated and reversed. A huge percentage of the masses of workers have been reduced to semiproletarian status in the last two decades.

The degradation of the Philippine working class has been made possible by the puppet Philippine government, upon the dictates of its imperialist master. The National Employment Plan that was drafted way back during Corazon Aquino’s administration openly encouraged contractualization purportedly as a means of raising business competitiveness. The plan has been further buttressed by other orders issued by subsequent governments that encouraged and allowed various forms of labor “flexibilization.”
These are among the key policies being pushed by imperialism under the “free market” globalization framework. They are being enforced as adjuncts to the policies of liberalization, denationalization, privatization and deregulation. The goal is to eradicate measures that protect the national economy and give free rein to foreign monopoly capitalists to invest their surplus capital, dump their surplus goods, extract national wealth and resources and exploit cheap labor in the semicolonies.
Through labor “flexibilization,” semicolonies are made to compete with each other in offering the cheapest and most docile workers in order to attract foreign big capitalist investors. Contractualization is now being undertaken on a global scale, with parts of monopoly capitalist production outsourced to lower-paid contractual workers in semicolonies. The proliferation of call centers in the Philippines is part of this phenomenon.
The struggle against labor contractualization and various forms of “flexibilization” is among the major struggles of the working class in the country. We must forge the broad unity of the Filipino people to resist and put a stop to the oppressive and exploitative system of contractualization. Just as the PAL workers are now doing, all unions and organizations of workers and the toiling masses must assail the growing practice of outsourcing and contractualization in various industries and companies and oppose imperialist and puppet government policies that advocate them.
We must also persevere in organizing workers–both regulars and contractuals–into unions and various kinds of associations or movements in their workplaces, in agencies that supply contractuals or in communities. These organizations must defend workers’ rights, which includes demanding higher wage increases and the regularization of employment.
It is crucial for the toiling masses, all progressive forces and the entire Filipino people to unite with and support the difficult struggle of the working class against labor “flexibilization” and other neoliberal economic policies. They must forge and widen the path of struggle for decent jobs, living wages and workers’ rights, and mobilize even the toiling masses who are unemployed as well as other democratic sectors that are supportive of the interests of workers.
The struggle for decent work and higher wages is closely linked to the demand and struggle for genuine land reform and national industrialization and for a self-reliant and progressive economy. Thus, the revolutionary forces, working class leaders and national democratic activists must do their all to arouse the broad masses and lead them towards the path of revolutionary struggle and the attainment of fundamental social change.

[ 本帖最后由 angbayan 于 2010-12-6 23:41 编辑 ]

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我们完全支持菲律宾航空公司的工人们反对公司以契约工取代约3000名正式员工的计划。针对该项外包计划的斗争受到广大工人阶级和劳苦大众的全力支持。斗争的焦点并不仅仅限于菲律宾航空公司的工人们和他们的家庭的生计。由于受到劳动和就业部的支持,菲律宾航空公司的大资本家们越来越大胆地开展外包项目。
这场斗争是反对帝国主义者自20世纪90年代以来所强制推行的输入外劳“灵活化”路线的延续。过去20年来由于受到各种形式的输入外劳“灵活化”:如临时工和契约工以及最近展开的外包制度的压迫,菲律宾工人阶级受到越来越严重的剥削。
这些案例的标准手法是通过恶劣的欺骗,胁迫和恐吓,还有强制退休等手段解雇正式员工并以临时工或契约工取而代之。
菲律宾国内临时工和契约工所占的比重已由20世纪90年代早期的15%上升至目前的80%。这样的做法已经变得极其普遍,主要是在大金融买办资本家所开办的企业当中,如菲律宾航空公司老板Lucio Tan。他在1999年将菲律宾航空公司12500名正式员工中的5000人解雇并以契约工取代。如果这次以契约工取代约3000名正式员工的计划得以实施,那么将有超过70%的菲律宾航空公司工作岗位被外包出去。外包制度也正在Lucio Tan所拥有的其他公司中被强制推行。在Lucio Tan为主要持股人的维多利亚铣床公司,几乎所有的工作部门都已经实行外包制度了。在菲莫烟草公司,那正在计划解雇2400名正式员工并以契约工代替。目前在超过70%的菲律宾企业中,契约工的数量超过正式员工。如生力啤酒公司(96%),SM百货集团(94%),Dole 菲律宾(77%)和菲律宾长途电话公司(60%)等大公司。ABS-CBN电视台由于最近解雇了100名聘自其下属机构ABS-CBN国际就业市场的契约工而正处于新闻风暴之中。和快餐连锁企业快乐蜂一样,这些由备受赞誉的呼叫中心(在外国公司中其岗位外包数量最多)所雇佣的员工几乎全部为契约工。
广泛存在的契约工雇佣使资本家能够加大剥削,增加他们的超额利润。与做同样工作的正式员工相比,契约工的工资低得多。在大多数情况下,契约工的工资甚至比法定的最低工资还低。他们还被剥夺了正式员工可以得到的权利和福利。其实对于契约工人资本家的义务极少。要求契约工在节假日加班却没有加班工资或者每天工作超过八个小时的做法很普遍。资本家实行的是不工作-无工资的政策,并且剥夺了契约工的医疗和其它利益。在许多案例当中,很多契约工在没有书面契约的情况下被雇佣,这样就可以让他们干超过预期的繁重劳动,甚至是违法的劳动。契约工因为一点点小错就被解雇,却没有任何维护自己利益的机会。契约工的低工资大大拉低了菲律宾的劳动力价值。由于面临普遍的失业威胁人们绝望地迁徙到任何有工作的地方,契约工人被迫接受他们的临时工作和随之而来的低得可怜的工资和恶劣的工作条件。帝国主义和金融买办大资本家合谋广泛推行输入外劳“灵活化”政策,在这一过程中破坏和诋毁处于萌芽状态的工会运动是他们的共同目的。虽然不合法,但大多数的劳动契约中的条款仍然禁止契约工参与工会活动。契约工人的短暂就业期也使得他们不能联合起来。劳动力雇佣契约化已经对工人的联合造成了严重的打击。经过近20年的输入外劳“灵活化”,目前只有约5%的工人加入工会组织(而1995年约为15%)。此外,最多只有20万工人(不到1%的劳动力)受集体谈判协议(简称CBA)的保护。随着输入外劳“灵活化”的普遍存在,工会活动无法取得资金,菲律宾工人遭到最严重的剥削和对权利的无情侵犯。许多在上个世纪由工人阶级通过斗争而赢得的胜利成果已经被践踏,侵犯和扭转。过去20年当中很大一部分工人已经沦为半无产者。
菲律宾傀儡政府在其帝国主义主子的支配下使得菲律宾工人阶级的处境越发艰难。在国家就业计划草拟过程中,菲律宾总统科拉松•阿基诺公开鼓励劳动力雇佣契约化以作为提高企业竞争力的手段。这使得该计划得到了随后政府颁布的各种鼓励和允许各种形式的输入外劳“灵活化”指令的进一步的扶持。这些就是帝国主义在经济全球化框架下所推行的核心政策。这些政策作为贸易自由化,非国有化,私有化和放松国家管制的政策的附加而强制推行。这些政策的目标是消除对国家经济的保护措施,放松对外国垄断资本家投资的限制,倾销他们的剩余产品,掠夺不发达国家的财富和资源,榨取半殖民地的廉价劳动力。通过输入外劳 “灵活化”政策,各个半殖民地争相提供最便宜,最听话的工人,以吸引外国大资本家的投资。劳动力雇佣契约化目前正在全球范围内作为在半殖民地外包给低工资契约工人的垄断资本生产的一部分而施行。在菲律宾呼叫中心发生的案例是这种现象的一部分。反对劳动契约化和各种形式的输入外劳“灵活化”的斗争,是菲律宾国家工人阶级的主要斗争。我们必须结成菲律宾人民的广泛团结,抵制和制止劳动契约化的压迫和剥削制度。正如菲律宾航空公司的工人正在做的,所有的工会、工人组织和劳苦大众要反对正在各种工厂和公司里出现的越来越多的外包与契约化事件。要与主张这些政策的帝国主义和傀儡政府坚决斗争。我们还必须坚持不懈地组织工人 - 包括正式工和契约工 -在他们的工作场所、契约工供应机构与社区成立工会和各种互助协会。这些组织必须捍卫工人权利,包括要求更高的工资增长和就业正规化。对于劳苦大众而言,关键是所有进步力量和全体菲律宾人民都团结和支持工人阶级反对输入外劳“灵活化”等新自由主义经济政策的艰苦斗争。必须团结和扩大斗争的道路,为了有尊严的工作,活命的工资和工人的权利而斗争,只要对工人利益有帮助,不论是失业的劳苦大众还是民主部门都应该动员起来。
这场要求有尊严的工作和更高的工资的斗争,是与彻底的土地改革和国家工业化以及自力更生和经济进步的斗争密切联系在一起的。因此,革命力量,工人阶级领袖和国家民主活动家们必须尽自己的一切所能,激发最广大的人民群众并带领他们朝着革命斗争和根本性的社会变革的道路前进。